Gynaecological endoscopy is a surgical technique that employs optical instruments specially designed to aid in the diagnosis of the most common female disorders and pathologies, such as infertility issues, vaginal haemorrhages, and endometrial polyps, among others. Hysteroscopy and laparoscopy are utilized in gynaecological endoscopy for these objectives.
Endoscopy is the direct evaluation of an organ or cavity using an endoscope, introduced via natural orifices or tiny incisions. This method yields more reliable and accurate information than other methods of an external investigation.
Laparoscopy is an endoscopic surgical technique that uses a small cut in the abdominal wall through which a laparoscope is introduced inside the body. The laparoscope is a long , thin tube (only a few millimetres in diameter) with a tiny camera at the end that visualises the abdominal cavity.
This procedure allows the gynaecologist to diagnose and treat many diseases and conditions of the uterus, the ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the colon and the uppermost part of the cervix. If surgical treatment is necessary, thin laparoscopic instruments can be inserted through several tiny incisions so that the respective tissues can be grabbed, moved, cut, removed or burnt.
The gynaecologist operates using hand-eye coordination while observing the movements of the laparoscopic instruments on a video display. This type of surgery requires special skills and solid experience.
Indications for gynaecological Laparoscopy
- Assessing tubal patency in infertility
- Tubal ligation (having the fallopian tubes tied for permanent contraception)
- Tubal (extrauterine) pregnancy
- Pelvic inflammation
- Surgical repair of the fallopian tubes
- Removal of adhesions after previous surgeries or diseases
- Removal of ovarian cysts or the whole ovary
- Removal of the uterus with or without its associated anatomical parts
- Inspection and removal of pelvic lymph nodes
- Removal of uterine fibroids (myomas)
This minimally invasive technique (hysteroscopy) enables rapid and accurate diagnosis of conditions for which ultrasound or gynaecological examination results are unsatisfactory. It is a comprehensive examination of the uterine cavity using an optical telescope known as a hysteroscope. With this procedure, we can detect and treat small polyps, fine adhesions, uterine cavity defects, retained products of conception after abortion, endometriosis lesions, as well as perform a biopsy if cancer or other pathology is suspected.
Hysteroscopy is used to find the cause behind symptoms such as:
- Irregular bleeding
- Assessment of infertility or carrying a pregnancy to term
- Removal of fibroids
- a lost intrauterine device
Hysteroscopy is also used to treat certain conditions like;
- Uterine polyps
- Uterine myomas, located inside the cavity or just under the uterine linings,
3 Laser Gynaecological hysteroscopy
As the pioneer of laser gynaecological surgery in west Africa, Alps Hospitals and Diagnostics offers gynaecological laser hysteroscopy. This is a minimally invasive procedure, which uses a diode laser for the surgical removal of polyps and myomas. The procedure is performed in the theatre with or without general anaesthesia.
Medical laser has been gaining popularity in modern gynaecological practice, as it offers a much greater precision of intrauterine manipulations while eliminating bleeding and pain. Laser is coherent light beams with the same wavelength and different properties. Some laser beams have an affinity to liquids and can evaporate them, while others can coagulate tissues. Diode laser in minimally invasive surgery has numerous advantages for the patient, less pain, less blood loss, faster recovery, and no complications risk.